3D VR 속에서 우리는 어떻게 학습할까?
VR은 virtual reality의 약자로, 가상현실이다. 컴퓨터나 핸드폰 등을 사용한 인공적인 기술로 만들어낸 실제와 유사하지만 실제가 아닌 어떤 특정한 환경이나 상황 혹은 그 기술 자체를 의미한다. 아이폰 vr, art vr 등으로 가상현실은 다양하게 활용되고 있다.
그렇다면 우리는 어떻게 가상현실 속에서 진짜인 것 같은 착각을 할까?
다양한 원인이 있지만, 존재감때문으로도 볼 수있다.
Witer와 동료들은 1998년부터 존재감에 대한 연구를 하였다. 1998년 연구에서는 가상현실 환경 안에서 존재감을 연구하고 2005년에는 존재감 경험의 원인이 되는 요인이나 변수를 확인하였다. 다음은 2005년 연구에서 개발한 존재감에 대해 묻는 설문이다.
Witmer, B. G., Jerome, C. J., & Singer, M. J. (2005). The factor structure of the presence questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 14(3), 298-312.
1. How much were you able to control events?
2. How responsive was the environment to actions that you initiated (or performed)?
3. How natural did your interactions with the environment seem?
4. How much did the visual aspects of the environment involve you?
5. How much did the auditory aspects of the environment involve you?
6. How natural was the mechanism which controlled movement through the environment?
7. How compelling was your sense of objects moving through space?
8. How much did your experiences in the virtual environment seem consistent with your real world experiences?
9. Were you able to anticipate what would happen next in response to the actions that you performed?
10. How completely were you able to actively survey or search the environment using vision?
11. How well could you identify sounds?
12. How well could you localize sounds?
13. How well could you actively survey or search the virtual environment using touch?
14. How compelling was your sense of moving around inside the virtual environment?
15. How closely were you able to examine objects?
16. How well could you examine objects from multiple viewpoints?
17. How well could you move or manipulate objects in the virtual environment?
18. How involved were you in the virtual environment experience?
19. How much delay did you experience between your actions and expected outcomes?
20. How quickly did you adjust to the virtual environment experience?
21. How proficient in moving and interacting with the virtual environment did you feel at the end of the
22. How much did the visual display quality interfere or distract you from performing assigned tasks or required
23. How much did the control devices interfere with the performance of assigned tasks or with other activities?
24. How well could you concentrate on the assigned tasks or required activities rather than on the mechanisms
used to perform those tasks or activities?
25. How completely were your senses engaged in this experience?
26. To what extent did events occurring outside the virtual environment distract from your experience in the
27. Overall, how much did you focus on using the display and control devices instead of the virtual experience and
28. Were you involved in the experimental task to the extent that you lost track of time?
29. How easy was it to identify objects through physical interaction, like touching an object, walking over a
surface, or bumping into a wall or object?
30. Were there moments during the virtual environment experience when you felt completely focused on the task
31. How easily did you adjust to the control devices used to interact with the virtual environment?
32. Was the information provided through different senses in the virtual environment (e.g., vision, hearing, touch)
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